Search us!

Search The Word Detective and our family of websites:

This is the easiest way to find a column on a particular word or phrase.

To search for a specific phrase, put it between quotation marks.






Comments are OPEN.

We deeply appreciate the erudition and energy of our commenters. Your comments frequently make an invaluable contribution to the story of words and phrases in everyday usage over many years.

Please note that comments are moderated, and will sometimes take a few days to appear.



shameless pleading





Bill of goods

From the people who brought you “Serving Suggestion.”

Dear Word Detective: I have heard the phrase “been sold a bill of goods” used, I think, to mean that the buyer has been swindled in some way. But what does it mean? Have I bought a list of various items, or “goods” on the “bill of goods” only to find that they are nonexistent? Or what? — Allan Pratt.

Or what, indeed? A bill of goods would seem to be a good thing, like a receipt. Speaking of receipts, how many of you folks closely examine your receipts from the supermarket? Until recently, the only time we did was when we got home and something we knew we had bought wasn’t in the bag, which seems to happen fairly often. There’s a cashier in one store we go to who apparently likes to sell the same package of boneless chicken over and over again. Anyway, we were checking the receipt last week and came across an entry right in the middle that said “Police Beverage: 0.00″ OK, I understand it was a free drink for a cop, no problem, but why on our receipt? Are we being shadowed by a thirsty flatfoot?

“Bill of goods” is a rather mundane phrase to have acquired such nefarious overtones. In its literal sense, a “bill of goods” is simply a list of items sent or consigned to another party for safekeeping, for sale, or in return for payment (i.e., essentially an itemized receipt). If I ran a shop selling only boneless chicken, for instance, I would expect the wholesaler who delivered the chicken to me in big boxes to provide me with a “bill of goods” detailing what I had bought.

The “bill” in “bill of goods” is the common English word meaning, at its most basic level, “written statement, document or list.” The word “bill” first appeared in English in the 14th century, from the Anglo-Norman “bille,” which was an adaptation of the Latin “bulla.” In Medieval Latin “bulla” meant “document,” but in Classical Latin it meant “bubble, blob, lump,” which referred to the wax seal used to seal official documents. A “Papal Bull,” an official edict from the Pope, is so-called because of the wax seal (“bull”) affixed to the document. Wax seals being largely obsolete, “bill” is now used for all sorts of documents, from laws passed by Congress to that itemized invoice from the phone company festooned with 419 dubious surcharges. “Bill” is also sometimes used to mean simply an itemized list, such as the “bill of fare” (menu) in a restaurant or the Bill of Rights.

“Bill of goods” was used in the non-pejorative “list of stuff” sense for many years until the 1920s, when it suddenly took on a negative spin in such colloquial phrases as “to sell someone a bill of goods,” meaning “to deceive or swindle; to persuade someone to accept something undesirable” (“Selling a big bill of goods hereabouts, I’ll wager, you old rascals?” Eugene O’Neill, Marco Millions, 1927). “Bill of goods” very quickly almost entirely lost its simple, honest  mercantile sense and became a synonym for “scam.”

Just how this transformation happened is something of a mystery; there does not appear to have been any famous case of fraud that might have made the phrase notorious. It’s more likely that the negative use began as a rueful acknowledgement of falling for a fraud (e.g., “Harry thought he bought nine crates of French champagne, but all he really bought was a bill of goods”) which became generalized as it spread in vernacular use. A similar process long ago transformed the phrase “don’t buy a pig in a poke” (referring to a suckling pig — often actually a stray cat — sold in a burlap sack) from advice to Medieval market-goers into a wise warning for 21st century consumers.

7 comments to Bill of goods

  • Sean Work

    My theory is that at some point a common swindle was to sell someone a bill of goods – not the goods themselves, but just the bill. In a similar vein I’ve seen ebay auctions for the boxes of various popular products.

    • My thoughts exactly… someone was shown a ‘bill of goods’ and said I will sell you this for $5000… they pay the money assuming he means the items listed ON the bill of goods, but actually just receives the bit of paper.

  • Tom

    This was quite a lengthy post that led to nowhere. Word Detective: I hate to tell you but Sean Work is right. The answer to the meaning behind the expression is as simple as that – no etymology per word needed. LOL.

    To be sold a bill of goods means to be sold “the bill” not the goods. In other words you got conned. Better luck next time.

  • Anonymous

    If all someone sold you was a bill of goods, without the goods, that would be a scam indeed!

  • Anna

    Yeah, that has to be what it is. It is one of my big pet peeves when people use a phrase like that without examining what it could mean. I’ve confused by this one until now. Clearly a bill of goods is the paper with no goods that it lists. I always thought a bill of goods was a list backed by real goods, so how could that be bad? Now I understand — it is the list with nothing to back it.

  • G Lampa

    Agreed. It seems to suggest that all you came away with, after parting with your hard-earned money, is the bill itself. Hence, you’ve been “sold the bill”.

  • Mike

    I’ve always felt it meant being compelled to buy a whole collection of goods, including a lot of useless things you wouldn’t otherwise want, in order to get what you do want. If some of the fiction I’ve read has any basis in fact, many a prospector arriving in the old West or Klondike was compelled to buy a whole outfit of picks, shovels, axes, camp stove, tent, etc when all he really wanted was a couple of shovels. So the scam is that you were manipulated into buying a lot of what you don’t need. Still practiced today by cable companies, cellular providers, etc.

Leave a Reply to G Lampa Cancel reply




You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>

Please support
The Word Detective

by Subscribing.


Follow us on Twitter!




Makes a great gift! Click cover for more.

400+ pages of science questions answered and explained for kids -- and adults!